This morning's key headlines from GenerationalDynamics. The draft letter reads in part:
Sometime in the middle of the 19th century, Russia entered a phase of internal crisis that in would culminate in revolution. Its causes were not so much economic or social as political and cultural. Ill-equipped and poorly led, Russian armies suffered catastrophic losses in campaign after campaign against German armies.
The war made revolution inevitable in two ways: Riots over the scarcity of food broke out in the capital, Petrograd formerly St. When his brother, Grand Duke Michael, refused the throne, more than years of rule by the Romanov dynasty came to an end.
The 2, delegates to this soviet were chosen from factories and military units in and around Petrograd.
The Provisional Government was unable to countermand the order. All that now prevented the Petrograd Soviet from openly declaring itself the real government of Russia was fear of provoking a conservative coup.
Between March and October the Provisional Government was reorganized four times. The first government was composed entirely of liberal ministers, with the exception of the Socialist Revolutionary Aleksandr F. The subsequent governments were coalitions.
None of them, however, was able to cope adequately with the major problems afflicting the country: Meanwhile, soviets on the Petrograd model, in far closer contact with the sentiments of the people than the Provisional Government was, had been organized in cities and major towns and in the army.
One reason was that radical socialists increasingly dominated the soviet movement. Kerensky became head of the Provisional Government in July and put down a coup attempted by army commander in chief Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov according to some historians, Kerensky may have initially plotted with Kornilov in the hope of gaining control over the Petrograd Soviet.
By September the Bolsheviks and their allies, the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, had overtaken the Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks and held majorities in both the Petrograd and Moscow soviets. Although a previous coup attempt the July Days had failed, the time now seemed ripe.
On October 24—25 November 6—7 the Bolsheviks and Left Socialist Revolutionaries staged a nearly bloodless coup, occupying government buildings, telegraph stations, and other strategic points.
The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which convened in Petrograd simultaneously with the coup, approved the formation of a new government composed mainly of Bolshevik commissars.
Petersburg during the Russian Revolution ofincluding a view of Vladimir Ilich Lenin speaking to a crowd.The Problem with Hybrid Warfare by Nadia Schadlow, War on the Rocks. Europe is now a petri dish for hybrid war. Events of the past decade, not to mention the last few years, have reaffirmed the value of a concept that sought to explain a range of diverse, coercive instruments across .
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These years were largely those of the Omayyad Amirs and Caliphs, who may be said to have presided over the Golden Age of Islâmic Spain.
The suprisingly rapid decline of the Omayyads in the 11th century quickly led to complete political fragmentation and to grave vulnerability to the rising Christian Kingdoms.
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In the West, including the capital city Tripoli, Prime Minister Fayez al-Serraj leads a weak government, known as the Government of National Accord (GNA), internationally recognized by .