Woodruff Professor of Law, Emory University. I am deeply grateful to Elliott Foote, Andy Mayo, and Justin Latterell for their excellent research assistance, Amy Wheeler for her expert administrative help, and Elizabeth Christian and Kelly Parker Cobb for their fine library services.
In Northanger AbbeyAusten parodies the Gothic literary style popular during the s. Austen's juvenile writings are parodies and burlesques of popular 18th-century genres, such as the sentimental novel.
She humorously demonstrates that the reversals of social convention common in sentimental novels, such as contempt for parental guidance, are ridiculously impractical; her characters "are dead to all common sense".
As Austen scholar Claudia Johnson argues, Austen pokes fun at the "stock gothic machinery—storms, cabinets, curtains, manuscripts—with blithe amusement", but she takes the threat of the tyrannical father seriously.
Bertram] was a woman who spent her days in sitting, nicely dressed, on a sofa, doing some long piece of needlework, of little use and no beauty, thinking more of her pug than her children, but very indulgent to the latter when it did not put herself to inconvenience In her juvenile works, she relies upon satire, parody and irony based on incongruity.
Her mature novels employ irony to foreground social hypocrisy. By the end of the novel, the truth of the statement is acknowledged only by a single character, Mrs. Bennet, a mother seeking husbands for her daughters. As Austen scholar Jan Fergus explains, "the major structural device in Pride and Prejudice is the creation of ironies within the novel's action which, like parallels and contrasts, challenge the reader's attention and judgment throughout, and in the end also engage his feelings.
In her later novels, in particular, she turns her irony "against the errors of law, manners and customs, in failing to recognize women as the accountable beings they are, or ought to be". Austen uses it to provide summaries of conversations or to compress, dramatically or ironically, a character's speech and thoughts.
To take three thousand pounds from the fortune of their dear little boy, would be impoverishing him to the most dreadful degree. She begged him to think again on the subject. How could he answer it to himself to rob his child, and his only child too, of so large a sum? However, Page writes that "for Jane Austen A woman must have a thorough knowledge of music, singing, drawing, dancing, and the modern languages, to deserve the word; and besides all this, she must possess a certain something in her air and manner of walking, the tone of her voice, her address and expressions, or the word will be but half-deserved.
I rather wonder now at your knowing any. For example, Admiral Croft is marked by his naval slang in Persuasion and Mr. Woodhouse is marked by his hypochondriacal language in Emma.
As Page explains, in Sense and Sensibilityfor example, the inability of characters such as Lucy Steele to use language properly is a mark of their "moral confusion". She is unable to express real feeling, since all of her emotions are mediated through empty hyperbole.
In Catharine, or the Bower, for example, Catharine makes moral judgments about Camilla based on her superficial and conventional comments about literature. The lack of physical description in her novels lends them an air of unreality.
In Austen novels, as Page notes, there is a "conspicuous absence of words referring to physical perception, the world of shape and colour and sensuous response". Alastair Duckworth argues that she displays "a concern that the novelist should describe things that are really there, that imagination should be limited to an existing order.
For example, Janet Todd writes that "Austen creates an illusion of realism in her texts, partly through readerly identification with the characters and partly through rounded characters, who have a history and a memory. Butler has argued that Austen is not primarily a realist writer because she is not interested in portraying the psychology of her heroines.
Seeing Austen as a polemicist against sensibilityButler argues that she avoided "the sensuous, the irrational, [and] the involuntary types of mental experience because, although she cannot deny their existence, she disapproves of them.The struggle for the rights of women is represented in this reader, notably by Mary Wollstonecraft and the Grimké sisters, but additional treatments of this important subject can be found in Wendy McElroy, ed., Freedom, Feminism, and the State (New York: Holmes and Meir, ).
Feminist Ethics is an attempt to revise, reformulate, or rethink those aspects of traditional western ethics that depreciate or devalue women's moral experience. Among others, feminist philosopher Alison Jaggar faults traditional western ethics for failing women in five related ways.
On Wollstonecraft’s historical narrative and the Scots, see also Anna Neill, “Civilization and the Rights of Woman: Liberty and Captivity in the Work of Mary Wollstonecraft,” Women’s Writing 8, no. 1 (): 99–, reprinted in Mary Wollstonecraft and the Critics, –, ed.
Harriet Devine Jump, 2 vols. In examining the data on the factor of age influencing a child's adjustment to divorce, it seems that older and younger children at the time of separation experience different short term effects, but share commonalities in the long term effects.
Mason urges the children (and.” Wollstonecraft’s book Mary Wollstonecraft on education The radical politics and proto-feminist portrayals found throughout Original Stories should not blind criticism. for the stories illustrating the instruction it contains. its advocacy of female “fortitude” and rationality.
Jul 27, · An Analysis of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley wrote in her introduction to the reprint of Frankenstein that "supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavour to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world" (x).