This figure describes the eight major research syntheses on the effects of homework published from to that provide the basis for the analysis in this article. The Cooper a study included more than empirical research reports, and the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall study included about 50 empirical research reports. The meta-analysis reviewed research dating as far back as the s; the study reviewed research from to Commenting on studies that attempted to examine the causal relationship between homework and student achievement by comparing experimental homework and control no homework groups, Cooper, Robinson, and Patall noted, With only rare exceptions, the relationship between the amount of homework students do and their achievement outcomes was found to be positive and statistically significant.
As I stated in my opening case. However, that subjective feeling must be tested by some objective, external measurement.
Without this external feedback, the student would never know whether he truly understood. Psychological studies have found that all people have a natural bias to believe that they are above average. For students, this translates to most students believing that they have above average knowledge of the subject matter.
This is irrelevant to the issue at hand.
This is mainly a case against standardized tests however a creative piece of writing may also be graded according to a rubric which may make student work harder to accomplish everything in the rubric and get a high grade. Tests may foster rote memorization but not grades.
Students working for a grade view knowledge as something that must be internalized in order to achieve a high mark, instead of something that can be intriguing when discussed and grappled with.
Tests perhaps should be given in different formats to encourage more critical thinking or have a class discussion which is also graded. For example I have had class discussions that have been graded. However they are still learning and without grades they would not WANT to learn at all without that extrinsic motivator they may not do any work or learn anything at all but with grades they are still learning even if indirectly Furthermore education is ultimately utilitarian.
Efficiency Not only are grades beneficial for students but also teachers greatly benefit from qualitatively quantifying the performance of students. For example letter grading systems provides teachers with concrete and effeicent ways of evaluating mastery of course content by students.
Furthermore if a high school student applies to college, one major factor that the admissions office consider are grades. When college students apply to graduate school, the admissions office again considers grades.
When students apply for a job, the employer considers the students grades. Without grades, post-secondary schools and employers will have no way to know whether the student learned the material well or badly.
Employers would obviously prefer to hire computer programmers and lawyers who achieved top grades rather than those that received the worst grades because top grades are a proxy for learning. The students with the best grades learned the material better than the other students and are therefore likely to make better workers.
UC Santa Cruz, for example, used to have a holistic rating system, where each student merely received an "essay" as feedback from each professor. As pro pointed out. Grades allow educators to make clear and informed decisions. The educational system would crumble without grades. My opponent would have to offer a rival educational system without grades.
It is incoherent to talk about whether a student has learned a certain subject matter, without somehow grading their knowledge. Without some tangible form of knowledge, any attempt of a student or teacher to figure out how much a student had learned would be nothing more than a subjective guess based on cognitive bias such as a teacher saying that students who he or she liked "knew" the material better.
Without grades, students that did not talk much during class would likely be marginalized because the teacher would assume they had not learned anything.
Thus, I negate the resolution and argue that grades are on the whole necessary and beneficial and the educational system is better with them. Since an essay will be graded according to a rubric if a student met those goals within the rubric the teacher has no choice but to assign the grade deserved.
Report this Argument Pro I would like to thank my opponent for accepting this debate; they are clearly a skilled debater. That being said, there are a few things that their rebuttals assume that are false, and a few things that their rebuttals fail to acknowledge about my contentions.
To show this, lets go through his last speech All additional evidence is for the purpose of extensions only. It is completely true that small amounts of stress can be good for a person.
The problem is that the amount of stress that students are under due to grades is most certainly not minor. The numbers on missed sleep, massive amounts of stress and the affect on their mental health including depression are incredibly worrying, as all of these affect cognitive ability and in turn their ability to take in knowledge.
I myself go to an extremely selective school, and the effects are even worse there, as most students get on average 5. Not only does stress affect students, it affects better students more. Clearly stress is a significant detriment, and my first point stands. I also think that it should be clear that, should there be no adequate response with an extension on benefits, the argument about is a significant voting point.
To be fair, my opponent does state that students can strive to do better by looking at feedback, which I assume means comments as well as grades, but this still ignores a fundamental tenet of the argument:Grading Student Work.
or how to develop an argument. Make specific, concrete recommendations. Establishing and discussing specific characteristics of success when an assignment is first distributed benefits both students and instructors.
Creating grading rubrics, or grids, is a typical way to do this. Having received the criteria with. Students fail for many reasons, but minimum grading is a specific grading practice targeted at a very specific cause of student failure: poor performances early in the learning process that put the student in so deep of a hole that recovering is not a reasonable possibility.
Grading without regard to students’ identities does not prevent you from commenting on how students’ work has progressed (or degenerated) over the course of the semester.
Once the actual assigning of letter grades is complete, you can always go back to your written comments and praise students who have made notable improvements (or caution students who have done the reverse). Grading Student Work. The View Student Work tab allows you to view and grade student work.
Here, you can assign numerical (point and percentage grades) as well as . These changes in grading policy are moving in tandem with national efforts to abolish letter grades and minimize the value placed on AP exams and SAT scores in favor of assessments focused on students’ skills, competencies, and work samples.
"And while the law [of competition] may be sometimes hard for the individual, it is best for the race, because it ensures the survival of the fittest in every department."(Bum Philips).
Grading is an important part making study a great competition. I do not say that there will be.