This worst of all possible worlds. All ends in dust in This worst of all possible worlds.
For a critical Christian response to these claims, see: The ancient polytheistic religions of Egypt, Persia, Babylonia and eventually Rome increasingly consolidated their pantheons of deities under a single primary god, usually a Sun-god.
Humans could choose between good light or evil darkness and on judgment day be sent to Heaven or Hell based on their choices. Mithras was identified as the redeemer prophesied by Zoroaster: As an adult, Mithras healed the sick, made the lame walk, gave sight to the blind and raised the dead.
Before returning to heaven at the Spring Equinox Mithras had a last supper with 12 disciples representing the 12 signs of the Zodiac.
This militaristic black-and-white morality including a final judgment affecting an afterlife of heaven or hell probably accounted for the popularity of Mithraism among Roman soldiers.
Mithraism was like an ancient fraternity: Commodus became the first Roman emperor to be initiated into Mithraism. The attempts by Diocletian to impose the state religion on everyone led to the last and most terrible of all persecutions. But many people saw the Roman State as a greater enemy than the Christians, who were respected for their willingness to die for their beliefs.
Despite the intense persecutions of Christians in the Roman Empire, Christianity continued to win many converts from paganism. Many of the former pagans were unwilling to relinquish their traditional winter solstice celebrations.
Constantine sought to unify Sun-worship and Christianity into a single monotheistic state religion. Although Constantine was baptized on his deathbed, this was not an indication of his insincerity — it was a common practice of early Christians to delay baptism so as to die without sin.
Although the Bible sanctifies Saturday as the Sabbath, many Christians regarded Sunday the day of the resurrection of Christ as the new holy day — especially because this distanced Christianity from Judaism.
Christian art began to adopt the pagan practice of depicting holy figures with crowns of sun rays the crown of Mithras or Sol invictusor with a halo. The Statue of Liberty wears a crown of sun rays. Constantine regarded himself to be the supreme spiritual leader of both the Sun-cults and of Christianity.
Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople, a city he immodestly renamed after himself. Constantine called himself "first of the apostles" and he did not recognize the papacy of the bishop of Rome.
Constantine called the first Council of Nicea Nicaea to resolve controversy and establish Christian orthodoxy. The Council of Nicea was the first ecumenical conference of Christian bishops, the nucleus of the institution which was to become the hierarchical Roman Catholic Church, dominated by celibate male priests.
Celibate priests had not been part of the teachings of Jesus — many of his apostles, including Peter, were married. The Council sanctioned the efforts of IrenaeusEusebius and others who were establishing certain scriptures as the infallible canon of the New Testamentwhile declaring other scriptures to be heresy — notably Gnostic Gospels such as the Gospel of Mary and the Gospel of Thomaswhich support the idea that Mary Magdalene was an apostle and that salvation is possible without a church.
With orthodox Christianity incorporated into the monolithic state religion, Christian "heretics" were heavily persecuted. The Church was pushed by political forces and pulled by the desire to co-opt a popular pagan holiday, despite a lack of evidence that Christ was born in December.
Constantine built the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, one of the oldest continually operating churches in the world currently administered by a coalition of Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox clerics. Gnostics believed that spiritual is more important than physical, that the knowledge Christ brought to the world is far more important than his physical birth or crucifixion and that direct personal experience of God is of greater importance than churches or other institutions.
The rebirth of the Greek god Dionysus had been celebrated on January 6th. At age 30 he became the bishop of Myra now the city of Demre on the south coast of Turkey near the beginning of the fourth century.
Soon after his appointment, the government of the Eastern Roman Empire jailed all Christian bishops who did not publicly sacrifice to the gods of Rome. Nicholas remained in prison for nearly ten years until Constantine conquered the East — ending the persecution of Christians.
So many Christians had defected that the sacrament of confession was created, so that the "traitors" could cleanse their souls before re-entering the Christian Church. Nicholas was a vigorous opponent of Arianism, the belief of the Alexandrian bishop Arius that Christ was created by God and therefore independent of God and inferior to God — a form of polytheism intended to explain how Christ could be both human and divine.Academy of Social Sciences ASS The United Kingdom Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences formed in gave rise to the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences incorporated , which became the Academy of Social Sciences on ASS Commission on the Social Sciences Notes .
The National History Day Summer Institute on the Civil War was designed to do just that. Twenty-five teachers from across the nation gathered at the University of Maryland to examine the Civil War as related to the NHD's theme for , "Turning Points in History: People, Ideas, and Events".
This book is a general introduction to Shi’i Islam―specifically to Twelver Shi’ism, to which the majority of Shi’is belong today. It deals with the history and development of this important religion, giving an account of Shi’i doctrines and focusing in particular on those areas in which it differs from Sunni Islam.
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Sample History essays! Chinese food The history of Chinese food is a complicated buffet of regional cuisines and world influence. There are plenty of sources you can use to learn about this topic.