Origins[ edit ] Kwame Nkrumah pictured on a Soviet postage stamp is a Ghanaian politician who coined the term "Neo-colonialism. Kwame Nkrumahformer president of Ghana —66coined the term, which appeared in the preamble of the Organization of African Unity Charter, and was the title of his book Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism The pamphlet frames 19th-century imperialism as the logical extension of geopolitical power, to meet the financial investment needs of the political economy of capitalism. In place of colonialism, as the main instrument of imperialism, we have today neo-colonialism.
The former institutionalized black slavery in the region, which, in turn, resulted in the oppression of black women. During the period of slavery in the Caribbean, black female chattel were usually delegated to sexual labor — wet nursing, slave breeding and prostitution Kempadoo 5.
Such an overly degrading status affirmed the racist misconception that black women were immoral and sexually promiscuous. They used writing as a means of criticizing the negative social impacts of the latter.
Simply put, theirs was a literary genre that served as a tool for political protest and a way of healing the splintered racial identity of the people in the Caribbean Wilentz The desire to attain political and economic supremacy prompted many European countries to acquire territories in Asia, Africa and the Americas from the 15th to the 19th centuries.
Accounts of explorers such as Marco Polo, Sir Francis Drake and Prince Henry the Navigator led several European monarchs to believe that the aforementioned continents were boundless sources of gold and silver, as well as other raw materials.
Thus, many regions throughout the world became divided into various colonies. Spain introduced the plantation system to the Caribbean at the beginning of the 16th century.
Although the region did not have gold or silver, its land and climate were suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
Sugarcane plantations, therefore, ended up being the source of wealth for Spain in the Caribbean. Seeing the huge amount of revenue that Spain generated from sugarcane farming, other European nations started opening their own plantations in the region as well Fahlbusch, Lochman, Bromiley, Barrett, Mbiti and Pelikan But the operations of a sugarcane plantation depended heavily on the availability of cheap labor.
As exploitation and disease decimated the Indian population of the Caribbean, plantation owners had no other choice but to utilize slave labor. The first slaves from Africa began arriving in Hispaniola in By the 19th century, there were already at least 9 million Africans that were forcibly brought to the New World Fahlbusch, Lochman, Bromiley, Barrett, Mbiti and Pelikan Black slavery was deeply entrenched in Caribbean society — even the church was very much involved in the former.
Many clergymen owned slaves, and sugar factories owned by monasteries were run using slave labor. The church treated slaves as its members but failed to defend their rights and even suppressed their culture Fahlbusch, Lochman, Bromiley, Barrett, Mbiti and Pelikan For example, slaves were denied access to education due to fears that literacy would allow them to read abolitionist books and pamphlets that could inspire them to rebel against their masters.
Black women suffered the most during the era of slavery in the Caribbean. For most European colonizers, slavery meant subjecting blacks to not only to forced labor but to sexual abuse as well.
Rape and sexual abuse of female slaves, as well as prostitution and concubinage, were not uncommon in Caribbean society Kempadoo 5. One of the most enduring legacies of colonialism in Caribbean societal values is the mulata stereotype.
The mulata referred to the erotic and sexually desirable mixed-raced woman. The black origins of the mulata served as a reminder of her shameful status as a slave Williams The mulata eventually symbolized the colonial mentality that was very rampant in the post-slavery era Caribbean society.
Her desperation to be considered as white reflected the persistent self-doubt, self-hate and feelings of inferiority that blacks in the Caribbean felt due to their past as chattel Williams Her gender, meanwhile, echoed the racist misconception that black women were immoral and sexually promiscuous.
Thus, the mulata created a unique sense of space and awareness for Caribbean women of color in their writings.
This stereotype became a venue for them to criticize the damaging effect of colonialism on black women — the mindset that being black was to be poor, uneducated and morally decadent, while being white was to be affluent, chaste, modest and proper.
On the steep, shy virgin slopes of the mountains, the orange tree bears blossoms with goodness perfumed.Gary Foley's personal Koori History page, with monthly special features on aspects of the Aboriginal struggle, photos, essays, and action. Colonialism and the Caribbean essaysBefore one can appropriately discuss the validity of this claim one must first establish and comprehend what was colonialism, what were the social, economic, political, and cultural models instituted during and after colonialism.
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Colonialism and the Caribbean essaysBefore one can appropriately discuss the validity of this claim one must first establish and comprehend what was colonialism, what were the social, economic, political, and cultural models instituted during and after colonialism.
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