From the late 19th century, characteristics of a public assistance province began emerge in parts of Western Europe.
Relations between the European countries and Central Asia Essay: Relations between the European countries and Central Asia Relations between the European countries and Central Asia have roots going far back in history to the times when the network of trade routes that is referred to as the Great Silk Road was established.
More recently, the end of the Cold War contributed to the creation and further development of economic and political ties between these two regions. After the collapse of the Soviet Union inand with the emergence of a number of newly independent states, the European countries found themselves facing an entirely different region, whose countries, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have different sets of values and a completely distinct mindset.
The relations between them have been developing dynamically, and have proven beneficial for both parties, especially in economic, energy and security spheres. The EU has progressively become the largest trading partner for Kazakhstan, accounting for more than half of its total external trade, amounted to USD EU exports to Kazakhstan have also been increasing.
The largest shares of the EU exports to Kazakhstan are devoted to machinery, transport equipment and chemicals.
It is also worth mentioning that European investment has also risen significantly. However, even though EU-Kazakhstan relations have achieved remarkable progress in certain areas since the establishment of diplomatic relations, the EU cannot boast about their accomplishments in pursuing its value-based agenda in Kazakhstan.
While there exist a lot of potential reasons accounting for the limited impact of the EU strategy in this particular dimension, such as official resistance to democratic reforms, which aim at loosening the authoritarian reins over politics, or the impact of authoritarian neighbors, which on the contrary strengthened it through various policies, this paper intends to examine the efforts taken by the EU to promote democratic values in Kazakhstan and offer some suggestions on refocusing and reshaping it.
The European Union — Kazakhstan Relations After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan, as well as other newly independent countries, was required to choose a direction of its development, entering the period of transition.
Despite specific legacies, which were left from the Soviet past, such as an absence of democratic governance, a painful transformation from planned to market economy, terrible environmental problems and mismanagement in natural resources, Kazakhstani government expressed its willingness to follow the path of democratization.
The integration into global political and economic processes, the establishment and maintenance of bilateral relations with foreign countries, as well as active cooperation with international organizations has been regarded essential for the successful realization of domestic reforms.
These days, the development of partnership relations with European Union countries continues to be one of the top priorities for Kazakhstan and a part of its multilateral foreign policy. The main goals of the announced programme were consolidation of established long-term relations between Europe and Kazakhstan and enhancement of partnership and collaboration between the two actors in various spheres, such as technology, energy, transport, trade, humanitarian sphere and investment.
EU as well attaches much significance to its relations with Kazakhstan. Prior toone of the most significant political developments of the relations between Europe and Kazakhstan included, but were not limited to: Locating Kazakhstan on the European Foreign Policy Map In the early years of cooperation, the dialogue between the EU and Kazakhstan primarily focused on trade and investment.
Initially, the TACIS programme was designed to target the Soviet Union states and to help them in their transition to democratic market-oriented economies.
However, after the collapse of the USSR, the programme re-defined its goal and went on to supporting the newly emerged independent states, including the five republics of Central Asia. Therefore, it can be fairly stated that the programme itself was not region-specific, and was rather aimed at the entire post-Soviet area.
In hindsight, it seems to be fair to claim that the TACIS programme had a great number of flaws and faced a rather great number of challenges. Some argue that the programme was not efficient at all, and has not accomplished its objectives.
Others emphasize that the programme itself was a quick response of the European Union to the changes that took place in its close neighborhood, therefore certain constrains were unavoidable.
The main emphasis was on the arrangements required for developing trade relations among EU and Kazakhstan, also there was a considerable focus made on expansion of the local market for new opportunities like goods and direct investment FDI from the EU.
What is important, there was a significant emphasis on the high level discussion on various political issues, as well as an attempt to support democratic transition and encourage the development of the market economy in the newly emerged country.
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