Those pigeons spent the pivotal hours of their lives in boxes, obsessively pecking small pieces of Plexiglas. Skinner trained his birds to earn food by tapping the Plexiglas. In some scenarios, the pigeons got food every time they pecked. In other arrangements, Skinner set timed intervals between each reward.
Overview[ edit ] The most significant aspects of the Act were: Bihar and Orissa was split into separate provinces of Bihar and Orissa Burma was completely separated from India Aden was also detached from India, and established as a separate Crown colony membership of the provincial assemblies was altered so as to include any number of elected Indian representatives, who were now able to form majorities and be appointed to form governments the establishment of a Federal Court However, the degree of autonomy introduced at the provincial level was subject to important limitations: The parts of the Act intended to establish the Federation of India never came into operation, due to opposition from rulers of the princely states.
The remaining parts of the Act came into force inwhen the first elections under the act were also held. Background[ edit ] Indians had increasingly been demanding a greater role in the government of their country since the late 19th century.
The Indian contribution to the British war effort during the First World War meant that even the more conservative elements in the British political establishment felt the necessity of constitutional change, resulting in the Government of India Act That Act introduced a novel system of government known as provincial "diarchy", i.
While the Act was a reflection of the demand for a greater role in government by Indians, it was also very much a reflection of British fears about what that role might mean in practice for India and of course for British interests there.
The experiment with dyarchy proved unsatisfactory. A particular frustration for Indian politicians was that even for those areas over which they had gained nominal control, the "purse strings" were still in the hands of British officialdom.
The intention had been that a review of India's constitutional arrangements would be held ten years on from the Act. In the event, the review was conducted ahead of time by the Simon Commissionwhose report proposed the scrapping of dyarchy, and the introduction of a much larger degree of responsible government in the provinces.
This proposal was controversial in Britain, demonstrating the rapidly widening gulf between British and Indian opinions as to the desirability, extent, and the speed of progress towards, the promised system of self-government contained in the Act's preamble.
Although the Simon Commission had taken evidence in India, it had met with opposition there, and its conclusions weren't accepted by Congress the largest political party. In an attempt to involve Indians more fully in working out a new constitutional framework, a series of Round Table Conferences were then held in the early s, attended at times by representatives from India's main political parties, as well as from the princely states.
Agreement was reached in principle that a federal system of government should be introduced, comprising the provinces of British India and those princely states that were willing to accede to it. However, division between Congress and Muslim representatives proved to be a major factor in preventing agreement as too much of the important detail of how federation would work in practice.
The new Conservative -dominated National Government in London decided to go ahead with drafting its own proposals white paperMarch It was immensely long, containing clauses and 16 schedules, and the reports of the debates took up 4, pages of Hansard.
The opposition Labour Party opposed the Third Reading of the bill on the grounds that it contained no specific promise of dominion status for India. It received Royal Assent and passed into law on 2 August Features[ edit ] No preamble: That Act's preamble quoted, and centred on, the statement of the Secretary of State for IndiaEdwin Montaguto the House of Commons on 20 Augustwhich pledged "the gradual development of self-governing institutions, with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral Part of the British Empire.
A significant element in British political circles doubted that Indians were capable of running their country on this basis, and saw Dominion status as something that might, perhaps, be aimed for after a long period of gradual constitutional development, with sufficient "safeguards".
This tension between and within Indian and British views resulted in the clumsy compromise of the Act having no preamble of its own, but keeping in place the Act's preamble even while repealing the remainder of that Act.
Unsurprisingly, this was seen in India as yet more mixed messages from the British, suggesting at best a lukewarm attitude and at worst suggesting a "minimum necessary" approach towards satisfying Indian desires.
No 'Bill of Rights'[ edit ] In common with Commonwealth constitutional legislation of the time, the Act did not include a "bill of rights" within the new system that it aimed to establish. However, in the case of the proposed Federation of India, there was a further complication in incorporating such a set of rights, as the new entity would have included nominally sovereign and generally autocratic princely states.
A different approach was considered by some, though, as the draft outline constitution in the Nehru Report included such a bill of rights.1.
Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
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