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Group communication[ edit ] The first important research study of small group communication was performed in front of a live studio audience in Hollywood California by social psychologist Robert Bales and published in a series of books and articles in the early and mid s. Bales made a series of important discoveries.
First, group discussion tends to shift back and forth relatively quickly Group communication the discussion of the group task and discussion relevant to the relationship among the members.
He believed that this shifting was the product of an implicit attempt to balance the demands of task completion and group cohesion, under the presumption that conflict generated during task discussion causes stress among members, which must be released through positive relational talk.
Second, task group discussion shifts from an emphasis on opinion exchange, through an attentiveness to values Group communication the decision, to making the decision.
This implication that group discussion goes through the same series of stages in the same order for any decision-making group is known as the linear phase model. Third, the most talkative member of a group tends to make between 40 and 50 percent of the comments and the second most talkative member between 25 and 30, no matter the size of the group.
Linear phase model[ edit ] The most influential of these discoveries has been the latter; the linear phase model. The idea that all groups performing a given type of task go through the same series of stages in the same order was replicated through the s, s and s; with most finding four phases of discussion.
For example, communication researcher B. Aubrey Fisher showed groups going sequentially through an orientation stage, a conflict stage, a stage in which a decision emerges and a stage in which that decision is reinforced.
First, all group data was combined before analysis, making it impossible to determine whether there were differences among groups in their sequence of discussion.
Second, group discussion content was compared across the same number of stages as the researcher hypothesized, such that if the researcher believed there were four stages to discussion, there was no way to find out if there actually were five or more.
In the s, communication researcher Marshall Scott Poole examined a sample of groups without making these errors and noted substantial differences among them in the number and order of stages.
Idea development[ edit ] Another milestone in the study of group discussion content was early s work by communication researchers Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell regarding the process by which groups examine individual proposed solutions to their problem.
In a procedure akin to the survival of the fittest, proposals viewed favorably would emerge later in discussion, whereas those viewed unfavorably would not; the authors referred to this process as "spiraling. For example, in the s, social psychologist L. Richard Hoffman noted that odds of a proposal's acceptance is strongly associated with the arithmetical difference between the number of utterances supporting versus rejecting that proposal.
More recent work has shown that groups differ substantially in the extent to which they spiral. The bona fide group, as described by Linda L. Putnam and Cynthia Stohl infosters a sense of interdependence among the members of the group, along with specific boundaries that have been agreed upon by members over time.
Social influence in groups[ edit ] Work relevant to social influence in groups has a long history. Two early examples of social psychological research have been particularly influential.
The first of these was by Muzafer Sherif in using the autokinetic effect. Sherif asked participants to voice their judgments of light movement in the presence of others and noted that these judgments tended to converge. When asked why, many of these participants reported that they had originally made the correct judgment but after hearing the confederates, decided the judgments of several others the confederates should be trusted over theirs.
Informational influence occurs when group members are persuaded by the content of what they read or hear to accept an opinion; Sherif's study appears to be an example. Normative influence occurs when group members are persuaded by the knowledge that a majority of group members have a view.
Normative influence should not be confused with compliance, which occurs when group members are not persuaded but voice the opinions of the group majority. Although some of the participants in the Asch studies who conformed admitted that they had complied, the ones mentioned above who believed the majority to be correct are best considered to have been persuaded through normative influence.
Conflict resolution[ edit ] Any group has conflicts, topics that people do not agree on, different points of view on how to move forward with a task and so on.
As a result, to be able to overcome any conflict that might arise, a six step conflict resolution will help to overcome the problem. As a consequence, it was a surprise to many social psychologists when in the early s, evidence appeared that group decisions often became more extreme than the average of the individual predisposed judgment.
Research has clearly demonstrated that group polarization is primarily a product of persuasion not compliance. Two theoretical explanations for group polarization have come to predominate.Free group messaging It's like a private chat room for your small group. Have as many as you want, and it's always free.
Now, you can coordinate with coworkers, organize a game night, and keep in touch with family all in the same place. This is the table of contents for the book An Introduction to Group Communication (v. ). For more details on it (including licensing), click here.
Behavioral scientists and management theorists have attempted to discern patterns in group communication and prescribe methods of increasing communication effectiveness for years. We participate in groups and teams at all stages and phases of our lives, from play groups, to members of an athletic team, to performing in a band, or performing in a play.
This is the table of contents for the book An Introduction to Group Communication (v. ). For more details on it (including licensing), click here. Nov 21, · Group communication refers to communication between 3 or more individuals.
Small group communication includes numbers from 3 to about 20 people, and large group communication includes numbers.