The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false.
Choking, cuts, infection; may require surgery to remove Packaging, pallets, equipment Choking, cuts, broken teeth; may require surgery to remove Employees Texts with more specific information on particular food products and food processes are of course available, depending on the product being considered.
However, the best places to obtain access to these texts would be universities and research institutions. Company complaints file This file should be thoroughly examined. The causes of complaints should be reviewed to assist in hazard identification. Scientific research and review papers These papers can be a good source of specific and up-to-date information.
They are published in the many food journals from around the world. University librarians can help search their library indexes as well as international data network systems for pertinent information on specific food products, ingredients, processes and packages.
Abstracts can be reviewed and the papers obtained, if appropriate. Epidemiological data on foodborne illness or disease Where available, the HACCP team should review epidemiological data on foodborne illness or disease in the country or region of concern.
The World Wide Web - homepages on Internet Use of the Internet may provide additional information related to hazards in foods useful to the analysis.
The estimate of the risk of a hazard occurring is based upon a combination of experience, epidemiological data and information in the technical literature. Severity is the degree of seriousness of the consequences of a hazard if the hazard is not controlled. There may be differences of opinion even among experts as to the risk of a hazard.
Hazards addressed under the HACCP system must be of such a nature that their prevention, elimination or reduction to acceptable levels is essential to the production of safe foods.
A hazard analysis must be conducted for each existing product or process type and for each new product. In addition, the hazard analysis done for a product or process type must be reviewed if any changes are made in raw material, product formulation, preparation, processing, packaging, distribution or intended use of the product.
For simplicity, the hazard analysis procedure has been broken down into the five following activities. Applying them in a logical sequential manner will help to avoid any omissions. Once these five activities have been completed, the HACCP team will have an extensive list of realistic potential hazards on Forms 5 biological hazards6 chemical hazards and 7 physical hazards.
Review incoming material In order to complete this activity, use the product description form Form 1 and the list of product ingredients and incoming material Form 2.
Review the information on the product description form Form 1 and determine how it could influence your interpretation during the analysis of the process.
For example, a ready-to-eat product must not contain pathogens in amounts that may harm the consumer. On the other hand, if the end-product is not a ready-to-eat product, some microorganisms may be acceptable in the end-product if a further operation e. For each incoming material ingredient or packaging materialwrite B, C or P directly on Form 2 see example to indicate the potential of a biological, chemical or physical hazard, using the sources of information described above.
Each time a hazard is identified on Form 2, fully describe the hazard on Form 5 if it is a biological hazard, on Form 6 if it is a chemical hazard and on Form 7 if it is a physical hazard see examples.
Be specific when describing the hazards.
For example, instead of writing "bacteria in incoming ingredient", write "C. To facilitate the identification of potential hazards, answer the following questions for each incoming material: If yes, is there a hazard linked to that practice?
Do they affect the survival of pathogens parasites, bacteria, fungi? Evaluate processing operations for hazards The objective of this activity is to identify all realistic potential hazards related to each processing operation, the product flow and the employee traffic pattern.
This can be accomplished by reviewing the process flow diagram Form 3 and the plant schematic Form 4 and modifying them as follows. The hazards should be related to the process. For example, if a biological hazard is identified at storing, a letter B is placed close to the storing operation on the process flow diagram Form 3.
Then "Improper storage temperature and humidity could result in increase of bacterial load" should be written on the biological hazards form Form 5. To help in determining if a hazard exists, the following questions should be answered for each processing step: Observe actual operating practices The HACCP team must be very familiar with every detail of the operation under investigation.
Any identified hazard must be recorded on the appropriate forms. Take measurements It may be necessary to take measurements of important processing parameters to confirm actual operating conditions.
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