An experimental study on converting municipal solid waste MSW into chlorine-free solid fuel using a combination of hydrothermal processing and water-washing has been performed. After the product was extracted from the reactor, water-washing experiments were then conducted to obtain chlorine-free products with less than ppm total chlorine content.
Cost is an important factor for large scale expansion of bioethanol production. The green gold fuel from lignocellulosic wastes avoids the existing competi- tion of food versus fuel caused by grain based bioethanol production Bjerre et al.
It has been estimated that billion liters of bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass and that total crop residues and wasted crops can produce billion liters of bio- ethanol per year, about 16 times higher than the actual world bioethanol production Kim S.
Lignocellulosic materials are renewable, low cost and are abundantly available. It includes crop resi- dues, grasses, sawdust, wood chips, etc. Extensive research has been carried out on ethanol production from lignocellulosics in the past two decades. Hence bioethanol production could Hydrothermal processing of municipal solid waste environmental sciences essay the route to the effective utilization of agricultural wastes.
Rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw, and sugarcane bagasse are the major agricultural wastes in terms of quantity of biomass available Kim S. Raw material Current industrial processes for bioethanol production use sugarcane Southern hemisphere or cereal grain Nothern Hemisphere as feedstocks; but they have to compete directly with food sector Wheals et al, Although these are the predominant feedstocks that are used today, projected fuel demands indicate that new alternative, low-priced feedstocks are needed to reduce ethanol production costs Palmarola-Adrados et al, The largest potential feedstock for ethanol is lignocellulosic biomass, which includes materials such as agricultural residues corn stover, crop straws, sugar cane bagasseherbaceous crops alfalfa, switchgrassshort rotation woody crops, forestry residues, waste paper and other wastes municipal and industrial Kim and Dale, Bioethanol production from these feedstocks could be an attractive alternative for disposal of these residues Wymam, Importantly, lignocellulosic feedstocks do not interfere with food security.
Moreover, bioethanol is very important for both rural and urban areas in terms of energy security reason, environmental concern, employment opportunities, agricultural development, foreign exchange saving, socioeconomic issues etc.
To avoid conflicts between food use and industrial use of crops, only wasted crops are assumed to be available for producing ethanol. Wasted crops are defined as crops lost during the year at all stages between the farm and households level during handling, storage and transport.
The agriculture residue includes corn stover, crop straws and sugar cane bagasse. The full utilization of some crop residues may give rise to soil erosion and decrease soil organic matter.
Most wasted biomass comes from rice, corn, and wheat. The US, Asia and the European Union are leading producers of agricultural by-products, such as straw from rice, corn and cereal crops. Surplus straw offers an ideal feedstock for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol, presenting no competition to the production of food or animal feed.
Nor is any additional land use required to produce bioethanol based on these types of feedstock, as they are automatically created as a by-product during existing production of rice, maize and cereals. As a result, about million tons of cereal straw are produced each year as an agricultural by-product in the EU alone.
Only a small part of this is currently utilized. This means that cellulosic ethanol can play a key role along Europe?? Lignocellulosic feedstocks of different regions worldwide In the US, corn stover is the main residue available for conversion into cellulosic ethanol, the second most important feedstock being cereal straw.
The Billion Ton study released by the Department of Energy estimates the volumes of corn stover and cereal straw available in a sustainable way at million tons. In Brazil, where sugar cane has already been used to produce bioethanol for many years, some million tons of sugar cane are forecast for the harvest, which will in turn give rise to approx.
Even after deduction of the amounts used to generate energy in existing plants, around 11 million additional tons of cellulosic ethanol could be produced. Pretreatment The most important processing challenge in the production of biofuel is pretreatment of the biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents namely hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose.
Pretreatment methods refer to the solubilization and separation of one or more of these components of biomass. It makes the remaining solid biomass more accessible to further chemical or biological treatment Demirbas, The lignocellulosic complex is made up of a matrix of cellulose and lignin bound by hemicellulose chains.
The pretreatment is done to break the matrix in order to reduce the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose and increase the fraction of amorphous cellulose, the most suitable form for enzymatic attack.
Pretreatment is undertaken to bring about a change in the macroscopic and microscopic size and structure of biomass as well as submicroscopic structure and chemical composition. It makes the lignocellulosic biomass susceptible to quick hydrolysis with increased yields of monomeric sugars Mosier et al, Physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological treatments are the four fundamental types of pretreatment techniques employed.
In general a combination of these processes is used in the pretreatment step. Physical pretreatment Physical pretreatment can increase the accessible surface area and size of pores, and decrease the crystallinity and degrees of polymerization of cellulose.An experimental study of the conversion of Japanese municipal solid waste (MSW) to solid fuel by using an innovative hydrothermal treatment has been performed.
Hydrothermal Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste-PR+RP. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind. The new Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules if a new paradigm for approaching it is not created.
The specified deadline for setting up of waste processing and disposal facilities was 31 December or earlier. However. also.
The population of Delhi is million they produce tonnes/day of municipal solid waste at the rate of kg/capital/day and accordingly the population as well as the MSW in increasing by the municipal solid waste generated will increase to 17,, tonnes/day.
Hydrothermal Processing Of Municipal Solid Waste Environmental Sciences Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers. Municipal Solid waste are gabages, sludge or refuse gotten form a waste water treatment plant, air. Hydrothermal Processing Of Municipal Solid Waste Environmental Sciences Essay.
Print Reference this. Disclaimer: This is a Municipal Solid Waste treatment process with a scientfically engineered structure built into or on the ground that is designed to isolate waste from the environment. Landfills operate in accordance with EPA’s.
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass such as wood, with an emphasis on .