Download this page in PDF format A figure long obscured by the mists of history, American soldier and trader John Cleves Symmes enjoyed his moment of fame—and marked his place in the venerable rolls of nineteenth-century eccentrics—on 10 April On that day he mailed out from St. I declare the earth is hollow, and habitable within; containing a number of solid concentrick spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles 12 or 16 degrees; I pledge my life in support of this truth, and am ready to explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in the undertaking.
Native Americans form an ethnic group only in a very general sense. In the East, centuries of coexistence with whites has led to some degree of intermarriage and assimilation and to various patterns of stable adjustment.
In the West the hasty expansion of… Native American culture areas Comparative studies are an essential component of all scholarly analyses, whether the topic under study is human society, fine art, paleontology, or chemistry; the similarities and differences found in the entities under consideration help to organize and direct research programs and exegeses.
The comparative study of cultures falls largely in the domain of anthropologywhich often uses a typology known as the culture area approach to organize comparisons across cultures.
The culture area approach was delineated at the turn of the 20th century and continued to frame discussions of peoples and cultures into the 21st century. A culture area is a geographic region where certain cultural traits have generally co-occurred; for instance, in North America between the 16th and 19th centuries, the Northwest Coast culture area was characterized by traits such as salmon fishing, woodworking, large villages or towns, and hierarchical social organization.
The specific number of culture areas delineated for Native America has been somewhat variable because regions are sometimes subdivided or conjoined. The 10 culture areas discussed below are among the most commonly used—the Arctic, the Subarctic, the Northeast, the Southeast, the Plains, the Southwest, the Great Basin, California, the Northwest Coast, and the Plateau.
Notably, some scholars prefer to combine the Northeast and Southeast into one Eastern Woodlands culture area or the Plateau and Great Basin into a single Intermontane culture area.
Each section below considers the location, climate, environmentlanguages, tribes, and common cultural characteristics of the area before it was heavily colonized. Prehistoric and post-Columbian Native American cultures are discussed in subsequent sections of this article.
A discussion of the indigenous peoples of the Americas as a whole is found in American Indian. The Arctic This region lies near and above the Arctic Circle and includes the northernmost parts of present-day Alaska and Canada.
The topography is relatively flat, and the climate is characterized by very cold temperatures for most of the year. Distribution of Arctic peoples. The Arctic peoples of North America relied upon hunting and gathering. Winters were harsh, but the long hours of summer sunlight supported an explosion of vegetation that in turn drew large herds of caribou and other animals to the inland North.
On the coasts, sea mammals and fish formed the bulk of the diet. Small mobile bands were the predominant form of social organization; band membership was generally based on kinship and marriage see also Sidebar: The Difference Between a Tribe and a Band.
Dome-shaped houses were common; they were sometimes made of snow and other times of timber covered with earth. Fur clothing, dog sleds, and vivid folklore, mythology, and storytelling traditions were also important aspects of Arctic cultures.
The topography is relatively flat, the climate is cool, and the ecosystem is characterized by a swampy and coniferous boreal forest taiga ecosystem.
Distribution of American Subarctic cultures. Their traditional languages are in the Athabaskan and Algonquian families. Small kin-based bands were the predominant form of social organization, although seasonal gatherings of larger groups occurred at favoured fishing locales.
Moose, caribou, beavers, waterfowl, and fish were taken, and plant foods such as berries, roots, and sap were gathered. In winter people generally resided in snug semisubterranean houses built to withstand extreme weather; summer allowed for more mobility and the use of tents or lean-tos. Snowshoes, toboggans, and fur clothing were other common forms of material culture.
See also American Subarctic peoples. The topography is generally rolling, although the Appalachian Mountains include some relatively steep slopes. The climate is temperate, precipitation is moderate, and the predominant ecosystem is the deciduous forest.
There is also extensive coastline and an abundance of rivers and lakes. Distribution of Northeast Indians. The traditional languages of the Northeast are largely of the Iroquoian and Algonquian language families. Most Northeastern peoples engaged in agriculture, and for them the village of a few dozen to a few hundred persons was the most important social and economic unit in daily life.
Groups that had access to reliably plentiful wild foods such as wild ricesalmon, or shellfish generally preferred to live in dispersed hamlets of extended families. Several villages or hamlets formed a tribe, and groups of tribes sometimes organized into powerful confederacies.
These alliances were often very complex political organizations and generally took their name from the most powerful member tribe, as with the Iroquois Confederacy. Cultivated corn maizebeans, squash, and weedy seed-bearing plants such as Chenopodium formed the economic base for farming groups.
All northeastern peoples took animals including deer, elk, moose, waterfowl, turkeys, and fish. Houses were wickiups wigwams or longhouses ; both house types were constructed of a sapling framework that was covered with rush matting or sheets of bark. Other common aspects of culture included dugouts made of the trunks of whole trees, birchbark canoes, clothing made of pelts and deerskins, and a variety of medicine societies.
See also Northeast Indian. The Southeast This region reaches from the southern edge of the Northeast culture area to the Gulf of Mexico; from east to west it stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to somewhat west of the Mississippi valley.Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America.
Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history. Read this American History Essay and over 88, other research documents.
Compare and Contrast Northern and Southern Colonies. Both the New England colonies and the Southern colonies seemed as though they might be the same.
Northern and Southern Colonies Differences The Northern and Southern Colonies of North America were politically /5(1). British North America by the mid ’s consisted of three major regions.
The New England region included the colonies of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Comparing and Contrasting the Colonial Regions Established in British North America. Home / This region between the northern and southern colonies.
As they fired back at their critics, defenders of slavery in antebellum America often maintained that slavery, as practiced in the South, was more humane than the system of “wage slavery” under which, they claimed, Northern and British industrial workers suffered.
This is so because the northern and southern colonies Home Page; Writing; Northern vs. Southern American Colonies s Essay; African and German Identities Colonial North America was a multifaceted melting pot of diversities.
Slavery in Colonial British North America. In contrast to the middle and New England colonies, the Southern colonies chose to export labor-intensive crops: tobacco in Chesapeake (Virginia and Maryland) and rice and indigo in South Carolina, which were believed to be very profitable. slavery did exist in the middle and Northern colonies. Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries. Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in The culture area approach was delineated at the turn of the 20th century and continued to frame discussions of peoples and cultures into the 21st century. A culture area is a geographic region where certain cultural traits have generally co-occurred; for instance, in North America between the 16th and 19th centuries, the Northwest Coast culture area was characterized by traits such as salmon.
The amalgamation of different ethnicities, races, cultures and religious organizations created a circumstance in. The development of Georgia was unlike all the other British colonies. First of all, it was the last to be created. Georgia was founded in , years after Jamestown was successfully planted.