However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo.
September 20, The Chronicle of Higher Education Nowadays, the American Psychological Association has a Code of Conduct in place when it comes to ethics in psychological experiments.
Experimenters must adhere to various rules pertaining to everything from confidentiality to consent to overall beneficence. Review boards are in place to enforce these ethics. But the standards were not always so strict, which is how some of the most famous studies in psychology came about.
Watson conducted a study of classical conditioning, a phenomenon that pairs a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus until they produce the same result.
This type of conditioning can create a response in a person or animal towards an object or sound that was previously neutral. Classical conditioning is commonly associated with Ivan Pavlov, who rang a bell every time he fed his dog until the mere sound of the bell caused his dog to salivate.
Watson tested classical conditioning on a 9-month-old baby he called Albert B. The young boy started the experiment loving animals, particularly a white rat.
Watson started pairing the presence of the rat with the loud sound of a hammer hitting metal. Albert began to develop a fear of the white rat as well as most animals and furry objects.
The experiment is considered particularly unethical today because Albert was never desensitized to the phobias that Watson produced in him. The child died of an unrelated illness at age 6, so doctors were unable to determine if his phobias would have Should experiments on animals be illegal into adulthood.
Asch Conformity Experiments Solomon Asch tested conformity at Swarthmore College in by putting a participant in a group of people whose task was to match line lengths. Each individual was expected to announce which of three lines was the closest in length to a reference line.
But the participant was placed in a group of actors, who were all told to give the correct answer twice then switch to each saying the same incorrect answer. Asch wanted to see whether the participant would conform and start to give the wrong answer as well, knowing that he would otherwise be a single outlier.
Thirty-seven of the 50 participants agreed with the incorrect group despite physical evidence to the contrary. Asch used deception in his experiment without getting informed consent from his participants, so his study could not be replicated today.
They were particularly intrigued by the murder of Kitty Genovesea young woman whose murder was witnessed by many, but still not prevented. The pair conducted a study at Columbia University in which they would give a participant a survey and leave him alone in a room to fill out the paper.
Harmless smoke would start to seep into the room after a short amount of time. The study showed that the solo participant was much faster to report the smoke than participants who had the exact same experience, but were in a group.
The studies became progressively unethical by putting participants at risk of psychological harm. Again, participants were much quicker to react when they thought they were the sole person who could hear the seizure. The Milgram Experiment Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram hoped to further understand how so many people came to participate in the cruel acts of the Holocaust.
Could we call them all accomplices? Participants were under the impression that they were part of a study of memory. These shocks would increase in voltage each time. Eventually, the actor would start to complain followed by more and more desperate screaming.
Having this fact revealed to the participant after the study concluded would be a clear example of psychological harm.
He would scare the infants and watch as the monkey ran towards the cloth model. Harlow also conducted experiments which isolated monkeys from other monkeys in order to show that those who did not learn to be part of the group at a young age were unable to assimilate and mate when they got older.
He hopes to discover data on human anxiety, but is meeting with resistance from animal welfare organizations and the general public. InSeligman and his team used dogs as subjects to test how one might perceive control.
The group would place a dog on one side of a box that was divided in half by a low barrier. Then they would administer a shock, which was avoidable if the dog jumped over the barrier to the other half.
Dogs quickly learned how to prevent themselves from being shocked.I’m doing a debate on the topic: We should ban Animal testing but, while doing some thinking I came across this: We have human trials for new drugs, animals like dogs also use need medicine and obviously this needs to be tested, so eventually it will end up been tests on animals.
The dozens of organizations using animals – ranging from monkeys to actual guinea pigs – as the basis for experimentation serve as a reminder that most of us indirectly support the practice, not only at the grocery store, but also in the voting booth. Experiments on animals should not be banned.
Animal testing is an important method for scientific research. Although scientists should make sure that they are following ethics standards and that they are treating the animals humanely, there is no reason that such testing should be suspended completely for humanitarian purposes.
Comic about a classic experiment into drug addiction science: Rat Park. Would rats choose to take drugs if given a stimulating environment and company? TED Talk Subtitles and Transcript: What happens when two monkeys are paid unequally? Fairness, reciprocity, empathy, cooperation -- caring about the well-being of others seems like a very human trait.
But Frans de Waal shares some surprising videos of behavioral tests, on primates and other mammals, that show how many of these moral traits all of .
Experiments which can be proven in court to be defined as "abuse" ARE illegal in the US. One of the main problems of this question is the rather broad definition of the word " experiment".If you have ever witnessed someone placing a mouse in a maze with a piece of food at the end, you have witnessed an animal experiment.