At the core of these transformations, which can be traced in cities from Latin America, Europe, and Asia, are sewage systems, street lighting, and drinking water systems. Most of these major infrastructural changes happen below street level, which explains why commentators on the 19th century often look up at what is visible, buildings, and rarely look below their feet. Also important to note that contrary to the dual city narrative 19th century infrastructural changes were implemented in both new and old parts of the city, with varying difficulty and speed for obvious reasons.
According to the census, 95 percent of the population lived in the countryside. The 5 percent of Americans living in urban areas places with more than 2, persons lived mostly in small villages.
Only Philadelphia, New York, and Boston had more than 15, inhabitants. The South was almost completely rural. After the urban areas of the country grew more rapidly than the rural areas.
By industrialization had produced substantial growth in cities, and 35 percent of Americans lived in urban areas, mostly in the northern half of the United States. The South remained rural, except for New Orleans and a few smaller cities.
The number of Americans living in cities did not surpass the number in rural areas until By the s three out of four Americans lived in an urban setting, and since World War II the southern half of the country has become increasingly urbanized, particularly in Texas, Arizona, and the states along the eastern seaboard.
Growth of Cities Until the middle of the 19th century, the center of the city was the most fashionable place to live. Merchants, lawyers, and manufacturers built substantial townhouses on the main thoroughfares within walking distance of the docks, warehouses, offices, courts, and shops where they worked.
Poorer people lived in back alleys and courtyards of the central city. Markets, shops, taverns, and concert halls provided services and entertainment.
The middle classes lived a little farther from the center, and other poor people lived in the suburbs, farther from the economic and governmental centers and away from urban amenities such as town watches, water pumps, and garbage collection. Cities were densely populated, as people had to live within walking distance of work and shops.
Streets were narrow, just wide enough to accommodate pedestrians and wagons. The Industrial Revolution of the 19th and 20th centuries transformed urban life and gave people higher expectations for improving their standard of living.
The increased number of jobs, along with technological innovations in transportation and housing construction, encouraged migration to cities.
Development of railroads, streetcars, and trolleys in the 19th century enabled city boundaries to expand. People no longer had to live within walking distance of their jobs.
With more choices about where to live, people tended to seek out neighbors of similar social status, if they could afford to do so. The wealthy no longer had to live in the center of the city, so they formed exclusive enclaves far from warehouses, factories, and docks.
Office buildings, retail shops, and light manufacturing characterized the central business districts. Heavier industry clustered along the rivers and rail lines that brought in raw materials and shipped out finished products.
Railroads also allowed goods to be brought into downtown commercial districts. By the second half of the 19th century, specialized spaces—retail districts, office blocks, manufacturing districts, and residential areas—characterized urban life.
The wealthy created separate neighborhoods for themselves by building mansions on large plots of land at the edges of the cities or in the countryside. Housing developments of similar-looking single-family or multiple-family dwellings, built by speculators, sprouted on the edges of cities.
These often catered to a new middle class of white-collar employees in business and industry. The houses faced broader streets and increasingly had plots of grass in front and sometimes in the rear. New apartments were spacious and often had balconies, porches, or other amenities.
By more than a third of urban dwellers owned their own homes, one of the highest rates in the world at the time. As the middle classes left the bustle and smoke of cities, poorer people—newcomers from the countryside and immigrants—moved into the old housing stock.
Landlords took advantage of the demand for housing by subdividing city houses into apartments and by building tenements, low-rent apartment buildings that were often poorly maintained and unsanitary. Immigrants gravitated to the cheap housing and to the promise of work in or near the center of cities or around factories.
Now the rich lived in the suburbs and the poor near the center of cities. In the 50 years from tothe number of Americans in cities grew from 10 million to 54 million.
Into the 20th century, cities grew in population and expanded geographically by absorbing nearby communities. In New York City acquired Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx as boroughs, political divisions that are like counties.From the era of Reconstruction to the end of the 19th century, the United States underwent an economic transformation marked by the maturing of the industrial economy, the rapid expansion of big business, the development of large-scale agriculture, and the rise of national labor unions and.
The US Coal Industry in the Nineteenth Century. Sean Patrick Adams, University of Central Florida Introduction. The coal industry was a major foundation for American industrialization in the nineteenth century.
By the s, most American Indians had been confined to reservations, often in areas of the West that appeared least desirable to white settlers. The cowboy became the symbol for the West of the late 19th century, often depicted in popular culture as a glamorous or heroic figure.
The stereotype of the heroic white cowboy is far from true, however. Essay The Industrial Revolution During The 19th Century The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century was an immensely remarkable time period in the world’s history. The revolution brought advancement throughout the world that transformed countries from premodern to modern.
During the 19th century Britain built up a great overseas empire including South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. In they crushed the uprising called the Indian Mutiny and in Queen Victoria was made Empress of India.
IMPACT OF BRITISH RULE. During the Napoleonic Wars, the administration of Cape Colony changed. After the Frnech conquered the Netherlands, the British seized control of Cape Colony in , returned it to the Dutch in and seized it again in